PHP-RQL API reference


Accessing ReQL

All ReQL queries begin from the top-level module.


r → r

The top-level ReQL namespace.

Example: Set up your top-level namespace.



r\connect(host, port=28015[, db[, authKey[, timeout]]]) → connection

Create a new connection to the database server.

Example: Open a connection using the default host and port, specifying the default database.

$conn = r\connect('localhost', 28015, "myDb")



Close an open connection.

Example: Close an open connection, waiting for noreply writes to finish.




Close and reopen a connection.

Example: Cancel outstanding requests/queries that are no longer needed.




Change the default database on this connection.

Example: Change the default database so that we don't need to specify the database when referencing a table.

r\table('heroes')->run($conn) // refers to r\db('marvel').table('heroes')


query->run(conn[, options]) → cursor
query->run(conn[, options]) → datum

Run a query on a connection.

Returns either a single result or a cursor, depending on the query.

Example: Run a query on the connection conn and log each row in the result to the console.

$cursor = r\table('marvel')->run($conn)
foreach ($cursor as $x) { print_r($x); }



noreplyWait ensures that previous queries with the noreply flag have been processed by the server. Note that this guarantee only applies to queries run on the given connection.

Example: We have previously run queries with the noreply argument set to true. Now wait until the server has processed them.



conn->server() → promise

Return the server name and server UUID being used by a connection.

Example: Return the server name and UUID.


// Result
array( "id" => "404bef53-4b2c-433f-9184-bc3f7bda4a15", "name" => "amadeus" )


cursor->toArray() → array

Retrieve all results and return them as an array.

Example: For small result sets it may be more convenient to process them at once as an array.

$fullResult = $cursor->toArray()



Close a cursor. Closing a cursor cancels the corresponding query and frees the memory associated with the open request.

Example: Close a cursor.


EventEmitter (cursor)

cursor->addListener(event, listener)
cursor->on(event, listener)
cursor->once(event, listener)
cursor->removeListener(event, listener)
cursor->emit(event, [arg1], [arg2], [...])

Cursors and feeds implement the same interface as Node's EventEmitter.

Manipulating databases


r\dbCreate(dbName) → object

Create a database. A RethinkDB database is a collection of tables, similar to relational databases.

If successful, the operation returns an object: {created: 1}. If a database with the same name already exists the operation throws ReqlRuntimeError.

Note: that you can only use alphanumeric characters and underscores for the database name.

Example: Create a database named 'superheroes'.



r\dbDrop(dbName) → object

Drop a database. The database, all its tables, and corresponding data will be deleted.

If successful, the operation returns the object {dropped: 1}. If the specified database doesn't exist a ReqlRuntimeError is thrown.

Example: Drop a database named 'superheroes'.



r\dbList() → array

List all database names in the system. The result is a list of strings.

Example: List all databases.


Manipulating tables


db->tableCreate(tableName[, options]) → object
r\tableCreate(tableName[, options]) → object

Create a table. A RethinkDB table is a collection of JSON documents.

Example: Create a table named 'dc_universe' with the default settings.



db->tableDrop(tableName) → object

Drop a table. The table and all its data will be deleted.

Example: Drop a table named 'dc_universe'.



db->tableList() → array

List all table names in a database. The result is a list of strings.

Example: List all tables of the 'test' database.



table->indexCreate(indexName[, indexFunction]) → object
table->indexCreateMulti(indexName[, indexFunction]) → object
table->indexCreateGeo(indexName[, indexFunction]) → object
table->indexCreateMultiGeo(indexName[, indexFunction]) → object

Create a new secondary index on a table.

The index can be either a regular index, a multi index, a geo index, or a multi geo index.

Example: Create a simple index based on the field postId.



table->indexDrop(indexName) → object

Delete a previously created secondary index of this table.

Example: Drop a secondary index named 'code_name'.



table->indexList() → array

List all the secondary indexes of this table.

Example: List the available secondary indexes for this table.



table->indexRename(oldIndexName, newIndexName[, array('overwrite' => false)]) → object

Rename an existing secondary index on a table. If the optional argument overwrite is specified as true, a previously existing index with the new name will be deleted and the index will be renamed. If overwrite is false (the default) an error will be raised if the new index name already exists.

Example: Rename an index on the comments table.

r\table('comments')->indexRename('postId', 'messageId')->run($conn)


table->indexStatus() → array
table->indexStatus(index) → array
table->indexStatus(array(index, ...)) → array

Get the status of the specified indexes on this table, or the status of all indexes on this table if no indexes are specified.

Example: Get the status of all the indexes on test:


Example: Get the status of the timestamp index:



table->indexWait() → array
table->indexWait(index) → array
table->indexWait(array(index, ...)) → array

Wait for the specified indexes on this table to be ready, or for all indexes on this table to be ready if no indexes are specified.

Example: Wait for all indexes on the table test to be ready:


Example: Wait for the index timestamp to be ready:



stream->changes([options]) → stream
singleSelection->changes([options]) → stream

Return a changefeed, an infinite stream of objects representing changes to a query. A changefeed may return changes to a table or an individual document (a "point" changefeed), and document transformation commands such as filter or map may be used before the changes command to affect the output.

Example: Subscribe to the changes on a table.

$feed = r\table('games')->changes()->run($conn);
foreach ($feed as $change) {

Writing data


table->insert(object | array(object, ...)[, array('durability' => "hard", 'return_changes' => false, 'conflict' => "error")]) → object

Insert JSON documents into a table. Accepts a single JSON document or an array of documents.

Example: Insert a document into the table posts.

    'id' => 1,
    'title' => "Lorem ipsum",
    'content' => "Dolor sit amet"


table->update(object | function
    [, array('durability' => "hard", 'return_changes' => false, 'non_atomic' => false)])
        → object
selection->update(object | function
    [, array('durability' => "hard", 'return_changes' => false, 'non_atomic' => false)])
        → object
singleSelection->update(object | function
    [, array('durability' => "hard", 'return_changes' => false, 'non_atomic' => false)])
        → object

Update JSON documents in a table. Accepts a JSON document, a ReQL expression, or a combination of the two. You can pass options like return_changes that will return the old and new values of the row you have modified.

Example: Update the status of the post with id of 1 to published.

r\table("posts")->get(1)->update(array('status' => "published"))->run($conn)


table->replace(object | function
    [, array('durability' => "hard", 'return_changes' => false, 'non_atomic' => false)])
        → object
selection->replace(object | function
    [, array('durability' => "hard", 'return_changes' => false, 'non_atomic' => false)])
        → object
singleSelection->replace(object | function
    [, array('durability' => "hard", 'return_changes' => false, 'non_atomic' => false)])
        → object

Replace documents in a table. Accepts a JSON document or a ReQL expression, and replaces the original document with the new one. The new document must have the same primary key as the original document.

Example: Replace the document with the primary key 1.

    'id' => 1,
    'title' => "Lorem ipsum",
    'content' => "Aleas jacta est",
    'status' => "draft"


table->delete([array('durability' => "hard", 'return_changes' => false)])
    → object
selection->delete([array('durability' => "hard", 'return_changes' => false)])
    → object
singleSelection->delete([array('durability' => "hard", 'return_changes' => false)])
    → object

Delete one or more documents from a table.

Example: Delete a single document from the table comments.



    → object

sync ensures that writes on a given table are written to permanent storage. Queries that specify soft durability ({durability: 'soft'}) do not give such guarantees, so sync can be used to ensure the state of these queries. A call to sync does not return until all previous writes to the table are persisted.

Example: After having updated multiple heroes with soft durability, we now want to wait until these changes are persisted.


Selecting data


r\db(dbName) → db

Reference a database.

Example: Explicitly specify a database for a query.



db->table(name[, array('readMode' => 'single', 'identifierFormat' => 'name')]) → table

Select all documents in a table. This command can be chained with other commands to do further processing on the data.

Example: Return all documents in the table 'marvel' of the default database.



table->get(key) → singleRowSelection

Get a document by primary key.

If no document exists with that primary key, get will return null.

Example: Find a document by UUID.



table->getAll(key[, array('index' =>'id')]) → selection
table->getMultiple(array(key, ...)[, array('index' =>'id')]) → selection

Get all documents where the given value matches the value of the requested index. Use getMultiple for retrieving documents under multiple keys at once.

Example: Secondary index keys are not guaranteed to be unique so we cannot query via get when using a secondary index.

r\table('marvel')->getAll('man_of_steel', array('index' =>'code_name'))->run($conn)


table->between(lowerKey, upperKey[, options]) → table_slice
table_slice->between(lowerKey, upperKey[, options]) → table_slice

Get all documents between two keys. Accepts three optional arguments: index, left_bound, and right_bound. If index is set to the name of a secondary index, between will return all documents where that index's value is in the specified range (it uses the primary key by default). left_bound or right_bound may be set to open or closed to indicate whether or not to include that endpoint of the range (by default, left_bound is closed and right_bound is open).

Example: Find all users with primary key >= 10 and < 20 (a normal half-open interval).

r\table('marvel')->between(10, 20)->run($conn)


selection->filter(predicate_function[, array(default => false)]) → selection
stream->filter(predicate_function[, array(default => false)]) → stream
array->filter(predicate_function[, array(default => false)]) → array

Get all the documents for which the given predicate is true.

filter can be called on a sequence, selection, or a field containing an array of elements. The return type is the same as the type on which the function was called on.

The body of every filter is wrapped in an implicit .default(false), which means that if a non-existence errors is thrown (when you try to access a field that does not exist in a document), RethinkDB will just ignore the document. The default value can be changed by passing an object with a default field. Setting this optional argument to r.error() will cause any non-existence errors to return a ReqlRuntimeError.

Example: Get all the users that are 30 years old.

r\table('users')->filter(array('age' => 30))->run($conn)


These commands allow the combination of multiple sequences into a single sequence


sequence->innerJoin(otherSequence, predicate_function) → stream
array->innerJoin(otherSequence, predicate_function) → array

Returns an inner join of two sequences.

Example: Return a list of all matchups between Marvel and DC heroes in which the DC hero could beat the Marvel hero in a fight.

r\table('marvel')->innerJoin(r\table('dc'), function($marvelRow, $dcRow) {
    return $marvelRow('strength')->lt($dcRow('strength'));


sequence->outerJoin(otherSequence, predicate_function) → stream
array->outerJoin(otherSequence, predicate_function) → array

Returns a left outer join of two sequences.

Example: Return a list of all Marvel heroes, paired with any DC heroes who could beat them in a fight.

r\table('marvel')->outerJoin(r\table('dc'), function($marvelRow, $dcRow) {
    return $marvelRow('strength')->lt($dcRow('strength'));


sequence->eqJoin(leftField, rightTable[, array('index' =>'id')]) → sequence
sequence->eqJoin(predicate_function, rightTable[, array('index' =>'id')]) → sequence

Join tables using a field or function on the left-hand sequence matching primary keys or secondary indexes on the right-hand table. eqJoin is more efficient than other ReQL join types, and operates much faster. Documents in the result set consist of pairs of left-hand and right-hand documents, matched when the field on the left-hand side exists and is non-null and an entry with that field's value exists in the specified index on the right-hand side.

Example: Match players with the games they've played against one another.

r\table('players')->eqJoin('gameId', r\table('games'))->run($conn)


stream->zip() → stream
array->zip() → array

Used to 'zip' up the result of a join by merging the 'right' fields into 'left' fields of each member of the sequence.

Example: 'zips up' the sequence by merging the left and right fields produced by a join.

r\table('marvel')->eqJoin('main_dc_collaborator', r\table('dc'))


These commands are used to transform data in a sequence.


sequence->map(mappingFunction) → stream
array->map(mappingFunction) → array
sequence1->mapMultiple(array(sequence2, ...), mappingFunction) → stream
array1->mapMultiple(array(array2, ...), mappingFunction) → array
r\mapMultiple(array(sequence1, sequence2, ...), mappingFunction) → stream
r\mapMultiple(array(array1, array2, ...), mappingFunction) → array

Transform each element of one or more sequences by applying a mapping function to them. For mapping over multiple sequences, mapMultiple must be used. mapMultiple will iterate for as many items as there are in the shortest sequence.

Example: Return the first five squares.

$result = r\expr(array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5))->map(function ($val) {
    return $val->mul($val);
// Result
array(1, 4, 9, 16, 25)


sequence->withFields(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → stream
array->withFields(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → array

Plucks one or more attributes from a sequence of objects, filtering out any objects in the sequence that do not have the specified fields. Functionally, this is identical to hasFields followed by pluck on a sequence.

Example: Get a list of users and their posts, excluding any users who have not made any posts.

r\table('users')->withFields(array('id', 'username', 'posts'))->run($conn)


stream->concatMap(function) → stream
array->concatMap(function) → array

Concatenate one or more elements into a single sequence using a mapping function.

Example: Construct a sequence of all monsters defeated by Marvel heroes. The field "defeatedMonsters" is an array of one or more monster names.

r\table('marvel')->concatMap(function($hero) {
    return $hero('defeatedMonsters');


table->orderBy(keyOrFunction2 | array(keyOrFunction2, ...), array('index' => index_name)) → table_slice
selection->orderBy(keyOrFunction | array(keyOrFunction1, ,,,)) → selection<array>
sequence->orderBy(keyOrFunction | array(keyOrFunction1, ...)) → array

Sort the sequence by document values of the given key(s). To specify the ordering, wrap the attribute with either r\asc or r\desc (defaults to ascending).

Sorting without an index requires the server to hold the sequence in memory, and is limited to 100,000 documents (or the setting of the array_limit option for run). Sorting with an index can be done on arbitrarily large tables, or after a between command using the same index.

Example: Order all the posts using the index date.

r\table('posts')->orderBy(array('index' => 'date'))->run($conn)

The index must have been previously created with indexCreate.


You can also select a descending ordering:

r\table('posts')->orderBy(array('index' => r\desc('date')))->run($conn)


sequence->skip(n) → stream
array->skip(n) → array

Skip a number of elements from the head of the sequence.

Example: Here in conjunction with orderBy we choose to ignore the most successful heroes.



sequence->limit(n) → stream
array->limit(n) → array

End the sequence after the given number of elements.

Example: Only so many can fit in our Pantheon of heroes.



selection->slice(startIndex[, endIndex, array('left_bound' =>'closed', 'right_bound' =>'open')]) → selection
stream->slice(startIndex[, endIndex, array('left_bound' =>'closed', 'right_bound' =>'open')]) → stream
array->slice(startIndex[, endIndex, array('left_bound' =>'closed', 'right_bound' =>'open')]) → array
binary->slice(startIndex[, endIndex, array('left_bound' =>'closed', 'right_bound' =>'open')]) → binary

Return the elements of a sequence within the specified range.

Example: Return the fourth, fifth and sixth youngest players. (The youngest player is at index 0, so those are elements 3–5.)

r\table('players')->orderBy(array('index' => 'age'))->slice(3,6)->run($conn)


sequence->nth(index) → object
selection->nth(index) → selection<object>

Get the nth element of a sequence, counting from zero. If the argument is negative, count from the last element.

Example: Select the second element in the array.



sequence->offsetsOf(datum | predicate_function) → array

Get the indexes of an element in a sequence. If the argument is a predicate, get the indexes of all elements matching it.

Example: Find the position of the letter 'c'.



sequence->isEmpty() → bool

Test if a sequence is empty.

Example: Are there any documents in the marvel table?



stream->union(sequence) → stream
array->union(sequence) → array

Merge two sequences. (Note that ordering is not guaranteed by union.)

Example: Construct a stream of all heroes.



sequence->sample(number) → selection
stream->sample(number) → array
array->sample(number) → array

Select a given number of elements from a sequence with uniform random distribution. Selection is done without replacement.

Example: Select 3 random heroes.



These commands are used to compute smaller values from large sequences.


sequence->group(fieldOrFunction[, array('index' => "indexName", 'multi' => false)]) → grouped_stream

Takes a stream and partitions it into multiple groups based on the fields or functions provided. Commands chained after group will be called on each of these grouped sub-streams, producing grouped data.

Example: What is each player's best game?



grouped_stream->ungroup() → array
grouped_data->ungroup() → array

Takes a grouped stream or grouped data and turns it into an array of objects representing the groups. Any commands chained after ungroup will operate on this array, rather than operating on each group individually. This is useful if you want to e.g. order the groups by the value of their reduction.

Example: What is the maximum number of points scored by each player, with the highest scorers first?



sequence->reduce(function) → value

Produce a single value from a sequence through repeated application of a reduction function.

Example: Return the number of documents in the table `posts.

r\table("posts")->map(function($doc) {
    return 1;
})->reduce(function($left, $right) {
    return $left->add($right);


sequence->count([value | predicate_function]) → number
binary->count() → number

Count the number of elements in the sequence. With a single argument, count the number of elements equal to it. If the argument is a function, it is equivalent to calling filter before count.

Example: Just how many super heroes are there?



sequence->sum([field | function]) → number

Sums all the elements of a sequence. If called with a field name, sums all the values of that field in the sequence, skipping elements of the sequence that lack that field. If called with a function, calls that function on every element of the sequence and sums the results, skipping elements of the sequence where that function returns null or a non-existence error.

Example: What's 3 + 5 + 7?

r\expr(array(3, 5, 7))->sum()->run($conn)


sequence->avg([field | function]) → number

Averages all the elements of a sequence. If called with a field name, averages all the values of that field in the sequence, skipping elements of the sequence that lack that field. If called with a function, calls that function on every element of the sequence and averages the results, skipping elements of the sequence where that function returns null or a non-existence error.

Example: What's the average of 3, 5, and 7?

r\expr(array(3, 5, 7))->avg()->run($conn)


sequence->min(field | function) → element
sequence->min(array('index' => <indexname>)) → element

Finds the minimum element of a sequence.

Example: Return the minimum value in the list [3, 5, 7].

r\expr(array(3, 5, 7))->min()->run($conn);


sequence->max(field | function) → element
sequence->max(array('index' => <indexname>)) → element

Finds the maximum element of a sequence.

Example: Return the maximum value in the list [3, 5, 7].

r\expr(array(3, 5, 7))->max()->run($conn);


sequence->distinct() → array
table->distinct([array('index' => <indexname>)]) → stream

Remove duplicate elements from the sequence.

Example: Which unique villains have been vanquished by marvel heroes?

r\table('marvel')->concatMap(function($hero) {
    return $hero('villainList');


sequence->contains(value | function) → bool

Returns whether or not a sequence contains the specified value, or if functions are provided instead, returns whether or not a sequence contains values matching the specified function.

Example: Has Iron Man ever fought Superman?


Document manipulation


r\row([field]) → value

Returns the currently visited document.

Example: Get all users whose age is greater than 5.



sequence->pluck(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → stream
array->pluck(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → array
object->pluck(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → object
singleSelection->pluck(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → object

Plucks out one or more attributes from either an object or a sequence of objects (projection).

Example: We just need information about IronMan's reactor and not the rest of the document.

r\table('marvel')->get('IronMan')->pluck(array('reactorState', 'reactorPower'))->run($conn)


sequence->without(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → stream
array->without(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → array
singleSelection->without(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → object
object->without(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → object

The opposite of pluck; takes an object or a sequence of objects, and returns them with the specified paths removed.

Example: Since we don't need it for this computation we'll save bandwidth and leave out the list of IronMan's romantic conquests.



singleSelection->merge([object | function, object | function, ...]) → object
object->merge([object | function, object | function, ...]) → object
sequence->merge([object | function, object | function, ...]) → stream
array->merge([object | function, object | function, ...]) → array

Merge two or more objects together to construct a new object with properties from all. When there is a conflict between field names, preference is given to fields in the rightmost object in the argument list.

Example: Equip Thor for battle.



array->append(value) → array

Append a value to an array.

Example: Retrieve Iron Man's equipment list with the addition of some new boots.



array->prepend(value) → array

Prepend a value to an array.

Example: Retrieve Iron Man's equipment list with the addition of some new boots.



array->difference(array) → array

Remove the elements of one array from another array.

Example: Retrieve Iron Man's equipment list without boots.



array->setInsert(value) → array

Add a value to an array and return it as a set (an array with distinct values).

Example: Retrieve Iron Man's equipment list with the addition of some new boots.



array->setUnion(array) → array

Add a several values to an array and return it as a set (an array with distinct values).

Example: Retrieve Iron Man's equipment list with the addition of some new boots and an arc reactor.

r\table('marvel')->get('IronMan')->getField('equipment')->setUnion(array('newBoots', 'arc_reactor'))->run($conn)


array->setIntersection(array) → array

Intersect two arrays returning values that occur in both of them as a set (an array with distinct values).

Example: Check which pieces of equipment Iron Man has from a fixed list.

r\table('marvel')->get('IronMan')->getField('equipment')->setIntersection(array('newBoots', 'arc_reactor'))->run($conn)


array->setDifference(array) → array

Remove the elements of one array from another and return them as a set (an array with distinct values).

Example: Check which pieces of equipment Iron Man has, excluding a fixed list.

r\table('marvel')->get('IronMan')->getField('equipment')->setDifference(array('newBoots', 'arc_reactor'))->run($conn)

() (bracket)

sequence(attr) → sequence
singleSelection(attr) → value
object(attr) → value
array(index) → value

Get a single field from an object or a single element from a sequence.

Example: What was Iron Man's first appearance in a comic?

$ironMan = r\table('marvel')->get('IronMan');


sequence->getField(attr) → sequence
singleSelection->getField(attr) → value
object->getField(attr) → value

Get a single field from an object. If called on a sequence, gets that field from every object in the sequence, skipping objects that lack it.

Example: What was Iron Man's first appearance in a comic?



sequence->hasFields(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → stream
array->hasFields(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → array
object->hasFields(selector | array(selector1, selector2...)) → boolean

Test if an object has one or more fields. An object has a field if it has that key and the key has a non-null value. For instance, the object {'a': 1,'b': 2,'c': null} has the fields a and b.

Example: Return the players who have won games.



array->insertAt(index, value) → array

Insert a value in to an array at a given index. Returns the modified array.

Example: Hulk decides to join the avengers.

r\expr(array("Iron Man", "Spider-Man"))->insertAt(1, "Hulk")->run($conn)


array->spliceAt(index, array) → array

Insert several values in to an array at a given index. Returns the modified array.

Example: Hulk and Thor decide to join the avengers.

r\expr(array("Iron Man", "Spider-Man"))->spliceAt(1, array("Hulk", "Thor"))->run($conn)


array->deleteAt(index [,endIndex]) → array

Remove one or more elements from an array at a given index. Returns the modified array.

Example: Delete the second element of an array.

> r(array('a','b','c','d','e','f'))->deleteAt(1)->run($conn)
// result
array('a', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f')


array->changeAt(index, value) → array

Change a value in an array at a given index. Returns the modified array.

Example: Bruce Banner hulks out.

r\expr(array("Iron Man", "Bruce", "Spider-Man"))->changeAt(1, "Hulk")->run($conn)


singleSelection->keys() → array
object->keys() → array

Return an array containing all of an object's keys. Note that the keys will be sorted as described in ReQL data types (for strings, lexicographically).

Example: Get all the keys from a table row.

// row: { id: 1, mail: "", name: "fred" }

// Result
array( "id", "mail", "name" )


Command syntax

singleSelection->values() → array
object->values() → array

Return an array containing all of an object's values. values() guarantees the values will come out in the same order as keys.

Example: Get all of the values from a table row.

// row: { id: 1, mail: "", name: "fred" }

// Result
array( 1, "", "fred" )


r\literal(object) → special

Replace an object in a field instead of merging it with an existing object in a merge or update operation.

r\table('users')->get(1)->update(array( 'data' => r\literal(array( 'age' => 19, 'job' => 'Engineer' )) ))->run($conn)


r\object(array(key, value,...)) → object

Creates an object from a list of key-value pairs, where the keys must be strings. r.object(array(A, B, C, D)) is equivalent to r.expr([[A, B], [C, D]]).coerce_to('OBJECT').

Example: Create a simple object.

r\object(r.array('id', 5, 'data', array('foo', 'bar')))->run($conn)

String manipulation

These commands provide string operators.


string->match(regexp) → null/object

Matches against a regular expression. If there is a match, returns an object with the fields:

If no match is found, returns null.

Example: Get all users whose name starts with "A".

    return $doc('name')->match("^A");


string->split([separator, [max_splits]]) → array

Splits a string into substrings. Splits on whitespace when called with no arguments. When called with a separator, splits on that separator. When called with a separator and a maximum number of splits, splits on that separator at most max_splits times. (Can be called with null as the separator if you want to split on whitespace while still specifying max_splits.)

Mimics the behavior of Python's string.split in edge cases, except for splitting on the empty string, which instead produces an array of single-character strings.

Example: Split on whitespace.

r\expr("foo  bar bax")->split()->run($conn)


string->upcase() → string

Uppercases a string.


r\expr("Sentence about LaTeX.")->upcase()->run($conn)


string->downcase() → string

Lowercases a string.


r\expr("Sentence about LaTeX.")->downcase()->run($conn)

Math and logic


value->add(value[, value, ...]) → value
time->add(number[, number, ...]) → time

Sum two or more numbers, or concatenate two or more strings or arrays.

Example: It's as easy as 2 + 2 = 4.



number->sub(number[, number, ...]) → number
time->sub(number[, number, ...]) → time
time->sub(time) → number

Subtract two numbers.

Example: It's as easy as 2 - 2 = 0.



number->mul(number[, number, ...]) → number
array->mul(number[, number, ...]) → array

Multiply two numbers, or make a periodic array.

Example: It's as easy as 2 * 2 = 4.



number->div(number[, number ...]) → number

Divide two numbers.

Example: It's as easy as 2 / 2 = 1.



number->mod(number) → number

Find the remainder when dividing two numbers.

Example: It's as easy as 2 % 2 = 0.



bool->rAnd(bool) → bool
r\rAnd(bool, bool) → bool

Compute the logical "and" of two values.

Example: Return whether both a and b evaluate to true.

var $a = true, $b = false;
// result


bool->rOr(bool) → bool
r\rOr(bool, bool) → bool

Compute the logical "or" of two values.

Example: Return whether either a or b evaluate to true.

var $a = true, $b = false;
// result


value->eq(value[, value, ...]) → bool

Test if two or more values are equal.

Example: See if a user's role field is set to administrator.



value->ne(value[, value, ...]) → bool

Test if two or more values are not equal.

Example: See if a user's role field is not set to administrator.



value->gt(value[, value, ...]) → bool

Compare values, testing if the left-hand value is greater than the right-hand.

Example: Test if a player has scored more than 10 points.



value->ge(value[, value, ...]) → bool

Compare values, testing if the left-hand value is greater than or equal to the right-hand.

Example: Test if a player has scored 10 points or more.



value->lt(value[, value, ...]) → bool

Compare values, testing if the left-hand value is less than the right-hand.

Example: Test if a player has scored less than 10 points.



value->le(value[, value, ...]) → bool

Compare values, testing if the left-hand value is less than or equal to the right-hand.

Example: Test if a player has scored 10 points or less.



bool->not() → bool
not(bool) → bool

Compute the logical inverse (not) of an expression.

not can be called either via method chaining, immediately after an expression that evaluates as a boolean value, or by passing the expression as a parameter to not.

Example: Not true is false.



r\random() → number
r\random(number[, number], array(float => true)) → number
r\random(integer[, integer]) → integer

Generate a random number between given (or implied) bounds. random takes zero, one or two arguments.

Example: Generate a random number in the range [0,1)



r\round(number) → number
number->round() → number

Rounds the given value to the nearest whole integer.

Example: Round 12.345 to the nearest integer.

> r\round(12.345)->run($conn);



r\ceil(number) → number
number->ceil() → number

Rounds the given value up, returning the smallest integer value greater than or equal to the given value (the value's ceiling).

Example: Return the ceiling of 12.345.

> r\ceil(12.345)->run($conn);



r\floor(number) → number
number->floor() → number

Rounds the given value down, returning the largest integer value less than or equal to the given value (the value's floor).

Example: Return the floor of 12.345.

> r\floor(12.345)->run($conn);


Dates and times


r\now() → time

Return a time object representing the current time in UTC. The command now() is computed once when the server receives the query, so multiple instances of will always return the same time inside a query.

Example: Add a new user with the time at which he subscribed.

    'name' => "John",
    'subscription_date' => r\now()


r\time(year, month, day[, hour, minute, second], timezone)
    → time

Create a time object for a specific time.

A few restrictions exist on the arguments:

Example: Update the birthdate of the user "John" to November 3rd, 1986 UTC.

r\table("user")->get("John")->update(array('birthdate' => r\time(1986, 11, 3, 'Z')))


r\epochTime(number) → time

Create a time object based on seconds since epoch. The first argument is a double and will be rounded to three decimal places (millisecond-precision).

Example: Update the birthdate of the user "John" to November 3rd, 1986.

r\table("user")->get("John")->update(array('birthdate' => r\epochTime(531360000)))


r\ISO8601(string[, array('default_timezone' =>'')]) → time

Create a time object based on an ISO 8601 date-time string (e.g. '2013-01-01T01:01:01+00:00'). RethinkDB supports all valid ISO 8601 formats except for week dates. Read more about the ISO 8601 format at Wikipedia.

If you pass an ISO 8601 string without a time zone, you must specify the time zone with the default_timezone argument.

Example: Update the time of John's birth.

r\table("user")->get("John")->update(array('birth' => r\ISO8601('1986-11-03T08:30:00-07:00')))->run($conn)


time->inTimezone(timezone) → time

Return a new time object with a different timezone. While the time stays the same, the results returned by methods such as hours() will change since they take the timezone into account. The timezone argument has to be of the ISO 8601 format.

Example: Hour of the day in San Francisco (UTC/GMT -8, without daylight saving time).



time->timezone() → string

Return the timezone of the time object.

Example: Return all the users in the "-07:00" timezone.

r\table("users")->filter( function($user) {
    return user("subscriptionDate")->timezone()->eq("-07:00")


time->during(startTime, endTime[, options]) → bool

Return if a time is between two other times (by default, inclusive for the start, exclusive for the end).

Example: Retrieve all the posts that were posted between December 1st, 2013 (inclusive) and December 10th, 2013 (exclusive).

    r\row('date')->during(r\time(2013, 12, 1), r\time(2013, 12, 10))


time->date() → time

Return a new time object only based on the day, month and year (ie. the same day at 00:00).

Example: Retrieve all the users whose birthday is today.

r\table("users")->filter(function($user) {
    return user("birthdate")->date()->eq(r\now()->date())


time->timeOfDay() → number

Return the number of seconds elapsed since the beginning of the day stored in the time object.

Example: Retrieve posts that were submitted before noon.



time->year() → number

Return the year of a time object.

Example: Retrieve all the users born in 1986.

r\table("users")->filter(function($user) {
    return user("birthdate")->year()->eq(1986)


time->month() → number

Return the month of a time object as a number between 1 and 12. For your convenience, the terms r.january, r.february etc. are defined and map to the appropriate integer.

Example: Retrieve all the users who were born in November.



time->day() → number

Return the day of a time object as a number between 1 and 31.

Example: Return the users born on the 24th of any month.



time->dayOfWeek() → number

Return the day of week of a time object as a number between 1 and 7 (following ISO 8601 standard). For your convenience, the terms r.monday, r.tuesday etc. are defined and map to the appropriate integer.

Example: Return today's day of week.



time->dayOfYear() → number

Return the day of the year of a time object as a number between 1 and 366 (following ISO 8601 standard).

Example: Retrieve all the users who were born the first day of a year.



time->hours() → number

Return the hour in a time object as a number between 0 and 23.

Example: Return all the posts submitted after midnight and before 4am.

r\table("posts")->filter(function($post) {
    return post("date")->hours()->lt(4)


time->minutes() → number

Return the minute in a time object as a number between 0 and 59.

Example: Return all the posts submitted during the first 10 minutes of every hour.

r\table("posts")->filter(function($post) {
    return post("date")->minutes()->lt(10)


time->seconds() → number

Return the seconds in a time object as a number between 0 and 59.999 (double precision).

Example: Return the post submitted during the first 30 seconds of every minute.

r\table("posts")->filter(function($post) {
    return post("date")->seconds()->lt(30)


time->toISO8601() → string

Convert a time object to a string in ISO 8601 format.

Example: Return the current ISO 8601 time.

// Result


time->toEpochTime() → number

Convert a time object to its epoch time.

Example: Return the current time in seconds since the Unix Epoch with millisecond-precision.


Control structures


r\binary(data) → binary

Encapsulate binary data within a query.

Example: Save an avatar image to a existing user record.

$avatarImage = file_get_contents('./defaultAvatar.png');
    'avatar' => r\binary($avatarImage)


any->rDo(function) → any
r\rDo(arg | array(arg,...), function) → any
any->rDo(expr) → any
r\rDo(arg | array(arg,...), expr) → any

Call an anonymous function using return values from other ReQL commands or queries as arguments.

Example: Compute a golfer's net score for a game.

    function ($player) {
        return $player('gross_score')->sub($player('course_handicap'));


r\branch(test, true_action[, test2, else_action, ...], false_action) → any

Perform a branching conditional equivalent to if-then-else.

The branch command takes 2n+1 arguments: pairs of conditional expressions and commands to be executed if the conditionals return any value but false or null (i.e., "truthy" values), with a final "else" command to be evaluated if all of the conditionals are false or null.

Example: Test the value of x.

var $x = 10;
r\branch(r\expr($x)->gt(5), 'big', 'small')->run($conn);
// Result


sequence->rForeach(write_function) → object

Loop over a sequence, evaluating the given write query for each element.

Example: Now that our heroes have defeated their villains, we can safely remove them from the villain table.

r\table('marvel')->rForeach(function($hero) {
    return r\table('villains')->get($hero('villainDefeated'))->delete()


r\range() → stream
r\range([startValue, ]endValue) → stream

Generate a stream of sequential integers in a specified range.

Example: Return a four-element range of [0, 1, 2, 3].

> r\range(4)->run($conn)

array(0, 1, 2, 3)


r\error(message) → error

Throw a runtime error. If called with no arguments inside the second argument to default, re-throw the current error.

Example: Iron Man can't possibly have lost a battle:

r\table('marvel')->get('IronMan')->do(function($ironman) {
    return r\branch($ironman('victories')->lt($ironman('battles')),
        r\error('impossible code path'),


value->default(default_value | function) → any
sequence->default(default_value | function) → any

Provide a default value in case of non-existence errors. The default command evaluates its first argument (the value it's chained to). If that argument returns null or a non-existence error is thrown in evaluation, then default returns its second argument. The second argument is usually a default value, but it can be a function that returns a value.

Example: Retrieve the titles and authors of the table posts. In the case where the author field is missing or null, we want to retrieve the string Anonymous.

r\table("posts")->map(function ($post) {
    return array(
        'title' => $post("title"),
        'author' => $post("author")->default("Anonymous")


r\expr(value) → value

Construct a ReQL JSON object from a native object.

Example: Objects wrapped with expr can then be manipulated by ReQL API functions.

r\expr(array('a' => 'b'))->merge(array('b' => array(1,2,3)))->run($conn)


r\js(jsString[, array('timeout' => <number>)]) → value

Create a javascript expression.

Example: Concatenate two strings using JavaScript.

r\js("'str1' + 'str2'")->run($conn)


sequence->coerceTo('array') → array
value->coerceTo('string') → string
string->coerceTo('number') → number
array->coerceTo('object') → object
sequence->coerceTo('object') → object
object->coerceTo('array') → array
binary->coerceTo('string') → string
string->coerceTo('binary') → binary

Convert a value of one type into another.

Example: Coerce a stream to an array.

r\table('posts')->map(function ($post) {
    return $post->merge(array( 'comments' => r\table('comments')->getAll(post('id'), array('index' => 'postId'))->coerceTo('array')));


any->typeOf() → string

Gets the type of a value.

Example: Get the type of a string.



any->info() → object
r\info(any) → object

Get information about a ReQL value.

Example: Get information about a table such as primary key, or cache size.



r\json(json_string) → value

Parse a JSON string on the server.

Example: Send an array to the server.



value->toJsonString() → string

Convert a ReQL value or object to a JSON string.

Example: Get a ReQL document as a JSON string.

> r\table('hero')->get(1)->toJsonString()
// result
'{"id": 1, "name": "Batman", "city": "Gotham", "powers": ["martial arts", "cinematic entrances"]}'


r\http(url [, options]) → value

Retrieve data from the specified URL over HTTP. The return type depends on the resultFormat option, which checks the Content-Type of the response by default.

Example: Perform a simple HTTP GET request, and store the result in a table.



r\uuid([string]) → string

Return a UUID (universally unique identifier), a string that can be used as a unique ID. If a string is passed to uuid as an argument, the UUID will be deterministic, derived from the string's SHA-1 hash.

Example: Generate a UUID.

> r\uuid()->run($conn)
// result

Geospatial commands


r\circle(array(longitude, latitude), radius[, array('num_vertices' => 32, 'geo_system' => 'WGS84', 'unit' => 'm', 'fill' => true)]) → geometry
r\circle(point, radius[, array('num_vertices' => 32, 'geo_system' => 'WGS84', 'unit' => 'm', 'fill' => true)]) → geometry

Construct a circular line or polygon. A circle in RethinkDB is a polygon or line approximating a circle of a given radius around a given center, consisting of a specified number of vertices (default 32).

Example: Define a circle.

    'id' => 300,
    'name' => 'Hayes Valley',
    'neighborhood' => r\circle(array(-122.423246,37.779388), 1000)


geometry->distance(geometry[, array('geo_system' => 'WGS84', 'unit' => 'm')]) → number
r\distance(geometry, geometry[, array('geo_system' => 'WGS84', 'unit' => 'm')]) → number

Compute the distance between a point and another geometry object. At least one of the geometry objects specified must be a point.

Example: Compute the distance between two points on the Earth in kilometers.

var $point1 = r\point(-122.423246,37.779388);
var $point2 = r\point(-117.220406,32.719464);
r\distance($point1, $point2, array('unit' => 'km'))->run($conn);
// result


line->fill() → polygon

Convert a Line object into a Polygon object. If the last point does not specify the same coordinates as the first point, polygon will close the polygon by connecting them.

Example: Create a line object and then convert it to a polygon.

    'id' => 201,
    'rectangle' => r\line(array(

    'rectangle' => r\row('rectangle')->fill()
), array('non_atomic' => true))->run($conn);


r\geojson(geojson) → geometry

Convert a GeoJSON object to a ReQL geometry object.

Example: Convert a GeoJSON object to a ReQL geometry object.

var $geoJson = array(
    'type' => 'Point',
    'coordinates' => array( -122.423246, 37.779388 )
    'id' => 'sfo',
    'name' => 'San Francisco',
    'location' => r\geojson($geoJson)


geometry->toGeojson() → object

Convert a ReQL geometry object to a GeoJSON object.

Example: Convert a ReQL geometry object to a GeoJSON object.

// result
    'type' => 'Point',
    'coordinates' => array( -122.423246, 37.779388 )


table->getIntersecting(geometry, array('index' => 'indexname')) → selection<stream>

Get all documents where the given geometry object intersects the geometry object of the requested geospatial index.

Example: Which of the locations in a list of parks intersect circle1?

$circle1 = r\circle(array(-117.220406,32.719464), 10, array('unit' => 'mi'));
r\table('parks')->getIntersecting($circle1, array('index' => 'area'))->run($conn);


table->getNearest(point, array('index' => 'indexname'[, 'maxResults' => 100, 'maxDist' => 100000, 'unit' => 'm', 'geo_system' => 'WGS84'])) → selection<array>

Get all documents where the specified geospatial index is within a certain distance of the specified point (default 100 kilometers).

Example: Return a list of enemy hideouts within 5000 meters of the secret base.

$secretBase = r\point(-122.422876,37.777128);
    array('index' => 'location', 'maxDist' => 5000)


sequence->includes(geometry) → sequence
geometry->includes(geometry) → bool

Tests whether a geometry object is completely contained within another. When applied to a sequence of geometry objects, includes acts as a filter, returning a sequence of objects from the sequence that include the argument.

Example: Is point2 included within a 2000-meter circle around point1?

var $point1 = r\point(-117.220406,32.719464);
var $point2 = r\point(-117.206201,32.725186);
r\circle($point1, 2000)->includes($point2)->run($conn);
// result


sequence->intersects(geometry) → sequence
geometry->intersects(geometry) → bool
r\intersects(sequence, geometry) → sequence
r\intersects(geometry, geometry) → bool

Tests whether two geometry objects intersect with one another. When applied to a sequence of geometry objects, intersects acts as a filter, returning a sequence of objects from the sequence that intersect with the argument.

Example: Is point2 within a 2000-meter circle around point1?

var $point1 = r\point(-117.220406,32.719464);
var $point2 = r\point(-117.206201,32.725186);
r\circle($point1, 2000)->intersects($point2)->run($conn);
// result


r\line(array(array(lon1, lat1), array(lon2, lat2), ...)) → line
r\line(array(point1, point2, ...)) → line

Construct a geometry object of type Line. The line can be specified in one of two ways:

Example: Define a line.

    'id' => 101,
    'route' => r\line(array(array(-122.423246,37.779388), array(-121.886420,37.329898)))


r\point(longitude, latitude) → point

Construct a geometry object of type Point. The point is specified by two floating point numbers, the longitude (−180 to 180) and the latitude (−90 to 90) of the point on a perfect sphere.

Example: Define a point.

    'id' => 1,
    'name' => 'San Francisco',
    'location' => r\point(-122.423246,37.779388)


r\polygon(array(array(lon1, lat1), array(lon2, lat2), ...)) → polygon
r\polygon(array(point1, point2, ...)) → polygon

Construct a geometry object of type Polygon. The Polygon can be specified in one of two ways:

Example: Define a polygon.

    'id' => 101,
    'rectangle' => r\polygon(array(


polygon1->polygonSub(polygon2) → polygon

Use polygon2 to "punch out" a hole in polygon1. polygon2 must be completely contained within polygon1 and must have no holes itself (it must not be the output of polygonSub itself).

Example: Define a polygon with a hole punched in it.

var $outerPolygon = r\polygon(array(
var $innerPolygon = r\polygon(array(



table->config() → selection<object>
database->config() → selection<object>

Query (read and/or update) the configurations for individual tables or databases.

Example: Get the configuration for the users table.

> r\table('users')->config()->run($conn);


table->rebalance() → object
database->rebalance() → object

Rebalances the shards of a table. When called on a database, all the tables in that database will be rebalanced.

Example: Rebalance a table.

> r\table('superheroes')->rebalance()->run($conn);


table->reconfigure(array('shards' => <s>, 'replicas' => <r>[, 'primary_replica_tag' => <t>, 'dry_run' => false)]) → object
database->reconfigure(array('shards' => <s>, 'replicas' => <r>[, 'primary_replica_tag' => <t>, 'dry_run' => false)]) → object

Reconfigure a table's sharding and replication.

Example: Reconfigure a table.

> r\table('superheroes')->reconfigure(array('shards' => 2, 'replicas' => 1))->run($conn);


table->status() → selection<object>

Return the status of a table.

Example: Get a table's status.

> r\table('superheroes')->status()->run($conn);


table->wait([array('wait_for' => 'ready_for_writes', 'timeout' => <sec>)]) → object
database->wait([array('wait_for' => 'ready_for_writes', 'timeout' => <sec>)]) → object
r\wait([array('wait_for' => 'ready_for_writes', 'timeout' => <sec>)]) → object

Wait for a table or all the tables in a database to be ready. A table may be temporarily unavailable after creation, rebalancing or reconfiguring. The wait command blocks until the given table (or database) is fully up to date.

Example: Wait for a table to be ready.

> r\table('superheroes')->wait()->run($conn);